# Chapter 25 Multiple Regression Analysis

## 25.1 Intro

Multivariate regression analysis can be useful to obtain a model to predict the dependent variable as a function of two or more predictor variables and estimate what proportion of the variance of that dependent variable can be understood using the predictor variables. The approach differs for continuous or categorical predictors, and both will be shown.

### 25.1.1 Example dataset

This example uses the Rosetta Stats example dataset “pp15” (see Chapter 1 for information about the datasets and Chapter 3 for an explanation of how to load datasets).

### 25.1.2 Variable(s)

From this dataset, this example uses variables xtcUseDosePref as dependent variable (the MDMA dose a participant prefers), highDose_attitude, highDose_perceivedNorm, and highDose_pbc as continuous predictors (the attitude, perceived norms, and perceived behavior control with respect to using a high dose of MDMA), and hasJob_bi as a categorical predictor (whether a participant has a job or not (e.g. is a student or unemployed)).

## 25.2 Input: jamovi

In the “Analyses” tab, click the “Regression” button and from the menu that appears, select “Linear Regression” as shown in Figure 24.1. Figure 25.1: Opening the linear regression menu in jamovi

In the box at the left, select the dependent variable and move it to the box labelled “Dependent variable” using the button labelled with the rightward-pointing arrow as shown in Figure 24.2. Figure 25.2: Selecting the dependent variable for the regression analysis in jamovi

In the box at the left, select the continuous predictors and move them to the box labelled “Covariates” using the button labelled with the rightward-pointing arrow as shown in Figure 25.3. Figure 25.3: Selecting the continuous predictros for the regression analysis in jamovi

Categorical predictors are moved to the box labelled “Factors” instead as shown in Figure 25.4. Figure 25.4: Selecting the categorical predictors for the regression analysis in jamovi

The results will immediately be shown in the right-hand “Results” panel. You can scroll down to specify additional analyses, for example to order more details about the coefficients by opening the “Model Coefficients” section as shown in Figure 25.5. Figure 25.5: Opening the Model Coefficients section in jamovi

For example, to request the confidence interval for the coefficient and the standardized (scaled) coefficients, check the corresponding check boxes as shown in Figure 25.6. Figure 25.6: Selecting the predictor for the regression analysis in jamovi

## 25.3 Input: R

### 25.3.1 R: base R

In base R, the lm (linear model) function can be combined with the summary function to show the most important results. With a continuous predictor, the code is as follows. R automatically treats variables that are factors as categorical, and numeric vectors as continuous variables.

result <-
lm(
xtcUseDosePref ~
highDose_attitude +
highDose_perceivedNorm +
highDose_pbc +
hasJob_bi,
data=dat
);
summary(
result
);

### 25.3.2 R: rosetta

In the rosetta package, the regr function wraps base R’s lm function to present output similar to that provided by other statistics programs in one command.

rosetta::regr(
xtcUseDosePref ~
highDose_attitude +
highDose_perceivedNorm +
highDose_pbc +
hasJob_bi,
data=dat
);

Like lm in base R, the command is the same for a continuous predictor as it is for a categorical predictor. Additional output can be requested using arguments collinearity=TRUE, and when there are two predictors and an interaction term, plot=TRUE):

rosetta::regr(
xtcUseDosePref ~
highDose_attitude +
hasJob_bi +
highDose_attitude:hasJob_bi,
data=dat,
collinearity=TRUE,
plot=TRUE
);

## 25.4 Input: SPSS

In SPSS, the REGRESSION command is used (don’t forget the period at the end (.), the command terminator):

REGRESSION
/DEPENDENT
xtcUseDosePref
/METHOD ENTER
highDose_attitude
highDose_perceivedNorm
highDose_pbc
/STATISTICS
COEF
CI(95)
R
ANOVA
.

## 25.5 Output: jamovi Figure 25.7: Multivariate regression analysis output in jamovi

## 25.6 Output: R

### 25.6.1 R: base R


Call:
lm(formula = xtcUseDosePref ~ highDose_attitude + highDose_perceivedNorm +
highDose_pbc + hasJob_bi, data = pp15)

Residuals:
Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max
-136.90  -48.76   -8.61   37.55  341.33

Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept)              36.011     80.152   0.449  0.65449
highDose_attitude        31.424     10.210   3.078  0.00289 **
highDose_perceivedNorm    6.244      8.613   0.725  0.47072
highDose_pbc              1.928     14.495   0.133  0.89456
hasJob_biYes             -3.310     21.400  -0.155  0.87750
---
Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1

Residual standard error: 82.25 on 77 degrees of freedom
(747 observations deleted due to missingness)
Multiple R-squared:  0.2058,    Adjusted R-squared:  0.1646
F-statistic: 4.988 on 4 and 77 DF,  p-value: 0.001252

### 25.6.2 R: rosetta

#### 25.6.2.1 Regression analysis

 Formula: xtcUseDosePref ~ highDose_attitude + hasJob_bi + highDose_attitude:hasJob_bi Sample size: 82 Multiple R-squared: [.07; .37] (point estimate = 0.2, adjusted = 0.17) Test for significance: (of full model) F[3, 78] = 6.69, p < .001
##### 25.6.2.1.1 Raw regression coefficients

(unstandardized beta values, called ‘B’ in SPSS)

95% conf. int. estimate se t p
(Intercept) [-41.36; 216.05] 87.34 64.65 1.35 .181
highDose_attitude [-9.46; 60.68] 25.61 17.62 1.45 .150
hasJob_biYes [-196.13; 93.09] -51.52 72.64 -0.71 .480
highDose_attitude:hasJob_biYes [-26.45; 52.66] 13.11 19.87 0.66 .511
##### 25.6.2.1.2 Scaled regression coefficients

(standardized beta values, called ‘Beta’ in SPSS)

95% conf. int. estimate se t p
(Intercept) [-0.22; 0.51] 0.14 0.18 0.78 .436
highDose_attitude [-0.1; 0.65] 0.28 0.19 1.45 .150
hasJob_biYes [-0.46; 0.38] -0.04 0.21 -0.18 .857
highDose_attitude:hasJob_biYes [-0.29; 0.57] 0.14 0.21 0.66 .511
##### 25.6.2.1.3 Collinearity diagnostics
VIF Tolerance
highDose_attitude 4.68 0.21
hasJob_bi 11.93 0.08
highDose_attitude:hasJob_bi 15.13 0.07
##### 25.6.2.1.4 Scatterplot Figure 25.8: Scatterplot with regression line