Chapter 17 Reliability analysis

17.1 Intro

Many statistical packages combine multiple specific statistics in one command or interface element often called “reliability analysis”. This chapter describes how to conduct that analysis.

17.1.1 Example dataset

This example uses the Rosetta Stats example dataset “pp15” (see Chapter 1 for information about the datasets and Chapter 3 for an explanation of how to load datasets).

17.1.2 Variable(s)

From this dataset, this example uses variables highDose_AttGeneral_good, highDose_AttGeneral_prettig, highDose_AttGeneral_slim, highDose_AttGeneral_gezond & highDose_AttGeneral_spannend.

17.2 Input: jamovi

In the “Analyses” tab, click the “Factor” button and from the menu that appear, select “Reliability Analysis” as shown in Figure 17.1.

Opening the reliability analysis menu in jamovi

Figure 17.1: Opening the reliability analysis menu in jamovi

In the box at the left, select all variables you want to include in this analysis and move them to the box labelled “Items” using the button labelled with the rightward-pointing arrow as shown in Figure 17.2.

Adding the items to analyse in jamovi

Figure 17.2: Adding the items to analyse in jamovi

You can now select which options you want by checking more checkboxes and indicating other settings in the left-hand panel. You will immediately see the results in the right-hand panel update as shown in Figure 17.3.

Adding the items to analyse in jamovi

Figure 17.3: Adding the items to analyse in jamovi

17.3 Input: R

17.3.1 R: rosetta

In R, using the rosetta package, you can use the following command:

rosetta::reliability(
  data = dat,
  items = c(
    "highDose_AttGeneral_good"
    "highDose_AttGeneral_prettig"
    "highDose_AttGeneral_slim"
    "highDose_AttGeneral_gezond"
    "highDose_AttGeneral_spannend"
  )
);

To order additional information, such as descriptive statistics, inter-item correlations, and other scale statistics, you can specify additional options. You can also specify item labels to print instead of the variable names:

rosetta::reliability(
  data = dat,
  items = c(
    "highDose_AttGeneral_good",
    "highDose_AttGeneral_prettig",
    "highDose_AttGeneral_slim",
    "highDose_AttGeneral_gezond",
    "highDose_AttGeneral_spannend"
  ),
  itemLabels = c(
    "Attitude: good",
    "Attitude: pleasant",
    "Attitude: smart",
    "Attitude: healthy",
    "Attitude: exciting"
  ),
  descriptives = TRUE,
  itemLevel = TRUE,
  scatterMatrix = TRUE,
  itemOmittedCorsWithRest = TRUE,
  alphaOmittedCIs = TRUE
);

17.4 Input: SPSS

In SPSS, you can use the following command:

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES =
    highDose_AttGeneral_good
    highDose_AttGeneral_prettig
    highDose_AttGeneral_slim
    highDose_AttGeneral_gezond
    highDose_AttGeneral_spannend
  /MODEL = ALPHA.

To order additional information, such as descriptive statistics, inter-item correlations, and other scale statistics, you can specify additional options:

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES =
    highDose_AttGeneral_good
    highDose_AttGeneral_prettig
    highDose_AttGeneral_slim
    highDose_AttGeneral_gezond
    highDose_AttGeneral_spannend
  /MODEL = ALPHA
  /STATISTICS = DESCRIPTIVE SCALE CORR
  /SUMMARY = TOTAL.

17.5 Output: jamovi

The output of a reliability analysis in jamovi

Figure 17.4: The output of a reliability analysis in jamovi

17.6 Output: R

17.6.1 Reliability analysis

17.6.1.1 Scale structure

17.6.1.1.1 Scale structure
17.6.1.1.1.1 Information about this scale
Dataframe: res$data
Items: highDose_AttGeneral_good, highDose_AttGeneral_prettig, highDose_AttGeneral_slim, highDose_AttGeneral_gezond & highDose_AttGeneral_spannend
Observations: 303
Positive correlations: 10
Number of correlations: 10
Percentage positive correlations: 100
17.6.1.1.1.2 Estimates assuming interval level
Omega (total): 0.79
Omega (hierarchical): 0.80
Revelle’s Omega (total): 0.79
Greatest Lower Bound (GLB): 0.87
Coefficient H: 0.85
Coefficient Alpha: 0.78

Note: the normal point estimate and confidence interval for omega are based on the procedure suggested by Dunn, Baguley & Brunsden (2013) using the MBESS function ci.reliability, whereas the psych package point estimate was suggested in Revelle & Zinbarg (2008). See the help (‘?ufs::scaleStructure’) for more information.

17.6.1.2 Scale descriptives

Mean, 95% CI lower bound: Mean, point
estimate:
Mean, 95% CI upper bound: SD, 95% CI lower bound: SD, point
estimate:
SD, 95% CI upper bound:
scale 3.51 3.63 3.75 0.99 1.07 1.16

17.6.1.3 Item-level descriptives

Mean, 95% CI lower bound: Mean, point
estimate:
Mean, 95% CI upper bound: SD, 95% CI lower bound: SD, point
estimate:
SD, 95% CI upper bound:
Attitude: good 3.49 3.69 3.88 1.58 1.71 1.85
Attitude: pleasant 3.94 4.15 4.35 1.71 1.84 2.00
Attitude: smart 2.80 2.94 3.08 1.14 1.23 1.34
Attitude: healthy 2.38 2.51 2.64 1.04 1.13 1.22
Attitude: exciting 4.72 4.87 5.02 1.21 1.31 1.42

17.6.1.4 Correlations of items with scale

Item-rest correlations:
95% CI lower bound
Item-rest correlations:
point estimate
Item-rest correlations:
95% CI upper bound
Attitude: good 0.66 0.72 0.77
Attitude: pleasant 0.60 0.66 0.72
Attitude: smart 0.57 0.64 0.70
Attitude: healthy 0.40 0.49 0.57
Attitude: exciting 0.21 0.32 0.42

17.6.1.5 Internal consistency estimates with items omitted

Coefficient Alpha:
95% CI lower bound
Coefficient Alpha:
point estimate
Coefficient Alpha:
95% CI upper bound
Omega (from psych):
point estimate
Attitude: good 0.62 0.67 0.72 0.72
Attitude: pleasant 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.75
Attitude: smart 0.67 0.72 0.76 0.73
Attitude: healthy 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.78
Attitude: exciting 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.82

17.6.1.6 Scatter matrix

Scatter matrix of all items.

Figure 17.5: Scatter matrix of all items.

17.7 Output: SPSS

The SPSS output still has to be added.